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COLD WAR CONVERSTATIONS-IV

THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS: 50 YEARS LATER

SPEAKER and AUTHOR BIOS:

Mr. Dino Brugioni

is a native of Missouri and attended schools in Bevier and Jefferson City. During World War II, he flew in 66 bombing and a number of reconnaissance missions over Europe. He received the Purple Heart, 9 Air Medals, and a Presidential Citation. After the war, he received BA and MA degrees from George Washington University.

 

He joined the CIA in 1948 and became an expert in Soviet industrial installations. In 1955, he was selected as a member of the cadre of founding fathers of the National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC). As a senior officer at NPIC, he was involved in the exploitation of U-2, SR-71, and satellite imagery in strategic and crisis situations.

 

Mr. Brugioni has received a number of awards for his work including a citation from President Kennedy for his performance during the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was also awarded the CIA Intelligence Medal for Merit, the CIA career Intelligence Medal, and the prestigious Pioneer in Space Medal for his role in the development of satellite reconnaissance. He authored 17 classified articles for the CIA Studies in Intelligence Journal along with helping to write the history of NPIC. He was twice awarded the Sherman Kent Award, the CIA’s top award for outstanding contributions to the literature of intelligence.

 

Since his retirement he has written six books: (1) Eyeball to Eyeball: The inside Story of the Cuban Missile Crisis, (2) Eyes in the Sky: Eisenhower, the CIA, and Cold War Aerial Espionage, (3) Photo Fakery, (4) From Balloons to Blackbirds, (5) The Holocaust Revisited: A Retrospective Analysis of the Auschwitz-Birkenai Extermination Complex, and (6) The Civil War in Missouri: as seen from the Capital City. He has also written more than 90 articles, mainly on the application of overhead imagery to intelligence and related fields. He and a co-author were awarded the National Intelligence Center Award for the best scholarly paper written in 1978.

 

A Civil War buff, he has written a number of articles dealing with the war in the West. He has helped with and appeared on about 90 nationally televised programs. Mr. Brugioni has also lecture at more than 50 colleges and universities, along with military organizations, associations, and industrial organizations. In 2002, he was a member of the 10-person U.S. delegation to Havana to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Cuban Missile crisis. On April 13, 2005 he was inducted into the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency’s Hall of Fame.

 

One of the world's premier aerial reconnaissance experts, his book, Eyeball to Eyeball, is the definitive account of those thirteen days in October 1962.

 

Mr. Michael Dobbs
was born (1950) in Belfast, Northern Ireland, and educated at the University of New York, graduating in 1972 with a BA in Economic & Social History, with fellowships at Princeton and Harvard. He has worked as a reporter for The Washington Post, since 1980, when he joined the paper as its Warsaw correspondent. He was the Post's bureau chief in eastern Europe (1980-1981), Paris (1982-1986), and Moscow (1988-1993).

Dobbs spent much of his career as a foreign correspondent covering the collapse of communism. He was the first western journalist to visit the Gdansk shipyard in August 1980, and also covered the Tiananmen Square uprising in China in 1989 and the abortive coup against Mikhail Gorbachev in August 1991. He also reported on the wars in the former Yugoslavia.

In Washington, he worked for the Post as a State Department reporter and as a foreign investigative reporter, covering the Dayton peace process. During the 2008 presidential campaign, he returned to the newspaper to launch its online "Fact Checker" column, which was suspended when the election was over.

His Down with Big Brother: The Fall of The Soviet Empire was a runner-up for the 1997 PEN award for nonfiction. His hour-by-hour study of the Cuban missile crisis, One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War, was a finalist for the 2008 Los Angeles Times history prize and was named one of five non-fiction books of the year by The Washington Post. Other books include a biography of former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, and Saboteurs: The Nazi Raid on AmericaMichael Dobbs is teaching courses on the Cuban Missile Crisis at American University in Washington, DC. He lives in Bethesda, Maryland.

 

Dr. Sergei N. Khrushchev

is the son of former Chairman of Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) of Soviet Union, 1957-1964, Nikita Khrushchev.

 

As a Senior Fellow at the Watson Institute for International Studies (1996-2012), Dr. Khrushchev focused his research on the former Soviet Union’s transition from a centralized to a decentralized society, as well as its transformation from a central to a market economy and its international security during this transition. One of his points of interest is the creation of a criminal society in Russia, as a consequence of the mistakes in the early stages of market reformation.  He is also interested in the history of the Cold War and the turning points in relations between the US and the Soviet Union in the Khrushchev, Eisenhower, and Kennedy periods.  Another focus of Dr. Khrushchev’s interests is the history of Soviet missiles and space development, in which he played an active role, from 1958-1968.

 

Dr. Khrushchev has been a Senior Fellow 1996-2012 and a Senior Visiting Scholar from 1991-1996 at the Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies.  In 1990, he was a Fellow at the Institute of Politics, John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.  From 1968-1991, he served at the Control Computer Institute in Moscow, rising from Section Head to First Deputy Director in charge of research.  From 1958-1968, he was an engineer, then Deputy Section head n charge of guidance systems for missile and space design.

 

In 1958-1968, Dr. Khrushchev participated in the Soviet missile and space program, including work on cruise missiles for submarines, military and research spacecraft, moon vehicles, and the “Proton,” the world’s largest space booster. Dr. Khrushchev has his Soviet doctoral degree from the Ukrainian Academy of Science, a Ph.D. from the Moscow Technical University, and an M.A. with distinction from the Moscow Electric Power Institute.

 

In 1967 he helped Nikita Khrushchev work on his memoirs.  The full text of Nikita Khrushchev’s memoirs, The Time, the People, the Power, was published in 1999 in four volumes by the Moscow News, a publishing house in Moscow (in Russian). Sergei Khrushchev edited Nikita Khrushchev’s memoirs in three volumes “Commissar”, “Reformer” and “Statesman”  published in USA in 2005-2007.  It is join project of Watson Institute and Penn State University. The same three volumes of Nikita Khrushchev memoirs edited by Sergei Khrushchev were published in China in 2007.

 

Since 1989, Dr. Khrushchev has lectured in the fields of Russian economic and political reforms; US-Soviet relations from 1950-1964; the history of the Soviet space program; and Nikita Khrushchev’s economic, political, and security reforms.

 

Dr. Khrushchev is mentioned in the Who’s Who in the World, Who’s Who in the United States, International Who’s Who of Contemporary Achievements, International Authors and Writers, International Who’s Who of Intellectuals, and Contemporary Authors Gala Research. In the Soviet Union, he received the Lenin Prize for his research, the Prize of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R., Hammer and Sickle Gold Star  and title  “Hero of Socialist Labor,” several awards for achievements in space and computer research, and four awards from the Soviet Union Engineering Society.  He is a full member of the International Academy of Information (1993), the Russian Space Academy (1994), a member of the Russian Society of Informatics (1990), and a member of the Russian Engineering Society (1970), a member of Vladimir Chelomey’s scientific and Engineering Society (2003).

 

Dr. Khrushchev taut in 1996-2011 at Brown University and lectured at the Naval War College in Newport, RI in 1998. He is a regular commentator for the American media, and the author of more than 350 books and articles on engineering, computer science, history, and economy.  He is also the author of Khrushchev on Khrushchev (1990), Nikita Khrushchev: Crisis and Missiles (1994), The Political Economy of Russian Fragmentation (1993), Three Circles of Russian Market Reforms (1995), Nikita Khrushchev and the Creation of a Super Power (2000). His books are published around the world in 12 languages.   The last Sergei Khrushchev’s Trilogy about Father: “Reformer. The Birth of a Superpower. Pensioner Souznogo Znacheniya” had been published in Russia in 2010.  The first and new book from this Trilogy: “Reformer” under the title “Khrushchev in Power. Unfinished Reoirms. 1961-1964.” now translating in Chinese and English (Lynne Rienner Publishers in Boulder, Colorado).  

 

 

Dr. Martin J. Sherwin

is University Professor of History at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. Before moving to GMU in 2007 he was the Walter S. Dickson Professor of English and American History at Tufts University for 27 years. His recent book, American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer (with Kai Bird) won the 2006 Pulitzer Prize for biography, the National Book Critics Circle Award for biography and the English Speaking Union Book Award. It was a Washington Post and Boston Globe Best Seller. Time Magazine selected it as one of the 6 best non-fiction books of 2005 and the New York Times listed it as one of the 50 best non-fiction books of the year. He is currently writing a book on the Cuban Missile Crisis, Gambling with Armageddon.

 

Sherwin is also the author of A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance which won the Bernath Prize awarded by the Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations as well as the American History Book Prize awarded by the National Historical Society. It was the 1976 finalist for both the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize. It has been in print continuously for 33 years. The current paperback edition of A World Destroyed is subtitled: Hiroshima and Its Legacies.

 

He has been recognized as a distinguished lecturer. In 1985, and again in 1986, The Council for the Advancement and Support of Education awarded him its “Professor of the Year, Silver Medal Award.” Professor Sherwin was also the founding director and executive producer of the innovative Global Classroom Project, a 'space bridge' program that employed TV satellite technology to link his students at Tufts with university students in Moscow for interactive discussions about the nuclear arms race and the environment. The programs, enthusiastically supported by Tufts president, Jean Mayer, were broadcast throughout the Soviet Union and on selected PBS stations in the United States between 1988 and 1992.

 

 

Lt. Cmdr. Tad T. Riley, USN (Ret)

was born on June 28, 1929 in McCook, NE. He is a graduate of The Hill School, Pottstown, PA, an NROTC scholar at the University of North Carolina, and a member of Sigma Chi Fraternity. Graduating from college in 1952 with a degree in Economics, he was commissioned an Ensign and then embarked on a 20 year career in the Navy.   Reporting to Pensacola for flight training to earn his wings, his next duty was a carrier based airborne early warning radar squadron flying AD-5W Sky Raiders home based at NAS Quonset Point, RI.

 

Later years saw Tad posted to a variety of squadrons, aircraft carriers and shore stations.  In 1962 during his tour in Light Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron 62 flying F8U-1P Crusaders, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross when he was one of the first group of 6 Navy pilots flying low level photo missions over Cuba during the Missile Crisis. The photos taken at 200 feet confirmed the presence of Russian nuclear weapons in Cuba.

 

In 1965 he was the Intelligence Officer on the nuclear powered USS Enterprise (CVAN-65), the Flagship of Task Force One, when it made the first un-replenished and un-refueled circumnavigation of the earth by surface ships. By the time Tad retired from the Navy in 1972, he had been qualified in over 20 different types of aircraft including single and multi engine prop and jet aircraft as well as helicopters.

 

Subsequently, he worked for the City of San Diego as a Financial Analyst and retired again in 1992. Tad and his wife, Phyllis, have 2 children and 5 grandchildren. They have pursued their favorite hobby traveling world wide visiting about 75 countries. They currently live in Fairfield, California.

 

 

Francis Gary Powers, Jr.

Born June 5, 1965, in Burbank, California, he is the son of Francis Gary and Claudia E. “Sue” Powers. Gary holds a Bachelors’ of Arts Degree in Philosophy from California State University, Los Angeles, and a Master’s Degree in Public Administration / Certification in Non-profit Management from George Mason University (GMU), Fairfax, Virginia.

 

Gary is the Founder and Chairman Emeritus of The Cold War Museum, a 501(c) (3) charity, which he founded in 1996 to honor Cold War veterans and preserve Cold War history. In this capacity he created a mobile exhibit on the U-2 Incident of the 1960s which has been exhibited at museums worldwide, coordinated donation activities totaling over $3.0M in financial, artifact, and in-kind donations, and negotiated with Vint Hill Economic Development Authority for the lease of a museum building at the former Army communication base located 40 miles from Washington, DC. He is currently, Chairman of the Presidential Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study and is working with the National Park Service and leading Cold War experts to create policy for commemorating, interpreting, and identifying Cold War historic sites.

 

As President for the Vienna Tysons Regional Chamber of Commerce between 2001 and 2005, Gary helped to strengthening the business and professional community in Tysons Corner and the surrounding area.

 

Because of his efforts to establish The Cold War Museum, the Junior Chamber of Commerce selected him as one of the “Ten Outstanding Young Americans” for 2002. He lectures internationally and appears regularly on the History, Discovery, and A&E Channels. Gary is married and has one son.

 

 

Mr. Ken Jack

graduated from New Kensington High School, near Pittsburgh, PA, in 1959 and enlisted in the Navy, where he was a photographer’s mate second class.  He was first trained as a Navy photographer and later as a photographic-electronics technician responsible for maintaining the aircraft’s photo electronics equipment.  He participated in the squadron’s implementation of the forward-firing KA-45 camera, which gave VFP-62 unique capabilities for capturing detailed photographic intelligence of the Soviet missile sites being installed in Cuba.  He led the first carrier testing of the camera and its night-photography capabilities aboard the super carrier USS Forrestal (CVA-59) only a few months before the Cuban Missile Crisis erupted in October 1962.

 

After the Navy, he obtained two college degrees in Educational Mathematics from Penn State University and the University of Pittsburgh, and post-graduate courses in Computer Science.  During his working career, he taught advanced high school mathematics and retired as a computer software engineer, developing nuclear-safety computer code, for Westinghouse Electric Company and Russian reactors.

 

In retirement, he developed a website dedicated to VFP-62 ( www.vfp62.com ) and serves as its webmaster.  He wrote an article, VFP-62 Supersonic Hooligans for the National Naval Aviation Museum’s October 2011 issue of Foundation, a bi-annual magazine distributed to the naval aviation supporters of the museum. He led his squadron’s contribution to the restoration of a RF-8A, which flew Cuban missions, at the Mobile, Alabama’s Battleship Park Aviation Museum.  He and other squadron members, provided research and consultation to the producers of the History Channel’s documentary on the Cuban Missile Crisis: Man, Moment, Machine (JFK, Cuban Missile Crisis, RF-8A Crusader). He and his wife, Darlene, live in rural northern Pennsylvania where he enjoys fishing, reading, and writing.

 

 

 

Harvey Simon - is a freelance writer living in Washington, DC. His articles have appeared in The Los Angeles Times, The Boston Globe Sunday Magazine, the History News Network and elsewhere.

 

Before moving to Washington he was a national security analyst at Harvard University, where he also wrote about other public policy issues.

 

The Madman Theory (Sept. 18, 2012, Rosemoor Press) is Simon’s debut novel. Its release coincides with the 50th anniversary of the most dangerous event in U.S. history – the Cuban Missile Crisis.

 

Simon received his undergraduate degree from Cornell University and has an M.A. in philosophy from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

 

Dr. Svetlana Savranskaya is director of Russia programs at the National Security Archive, George Washington University, and the editor of the new book by the late Sergo Mikoyan, “The Soviet Cuban Missile Crisis: Castro, Mikoyan, Kennedy, Khrushchev and the Missiles of November”. She coordinated the Russian delegations to the historic 30th anniversary Cuban Missile Crisis conference in Havana in 1992 and to the landmark 40th anniversary Havana conference in 2002.

Dr. Savranskaya won the Link-Kuehl Prize in 2011 from the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, recognizing the best documentary publication over the previous two years, for her book (with Thomas Blanton and Vladislav Zubok) “Masterpieces of History: The Peaceful End of the Cold War in Europe 1989”. She also serves as an adjunct professor teaching U.S.-Russian relations and modern Russian history at the American University School of International Service in Washington, D.C.  She earned her Ph.D. in political science and international affairs in 1998 from Emory University, where she studied with Professors Robert Pastor and Thomas Remington.  A “Red Diploma” graduate of the Moscow State University in 1988, she went on to study at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1989-90 before moving to Emory, where she won a dissertation fellowship from the Institute for the Study of World Politics and worked as a Hewlett Fellow at the Carter Presidential Center in 1993. Her articles and chapters have appeared in the Journal of Strategic Studies, The Cold War International History Project Bulletin, and the Cambridge History of the Cold War, among many other publications.

Polmar PhotoNorman Polmar is an analyst, consultant, and author specializing in naval, aviation, and intelligence issues. Mr. Polmar has consulted on naval-related issues to three U.S. Senators, the Speaker of the House, and the Deputy Councilor to the President, as well as to the Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

From 1982 to 1986 and from December 2002 until June 2008, he served as a member of the Secretary of the Navy's Research Advisory Committee (NRAC). He chaired the NRAC panel established in 2005 to determine science and technology requirements for supporting the Navy and Marine Corps in the period 2015-2020. He also served on a sub-panel of the Defense Science Board’s study of transition to and from hostilities (2004) and was a member of a DARPA advisory panel looking at future warfare requirements (2007). In early 2007 he was appointed to reestablish and chair the Science and Technology Advisory Committee of the Department of Homeland Security. He served as chair of the committee until 1 August 2009, and remained a member until its charter expired in 2012.

Polmar has written or coauthored 50 published books and numerous articles on naval, aviation, and intelligence subjects. From 1967 to 1977, Mr. Polmar was editor of the United States sections of Jane’s Fighting Ships, being completely responsible for almost one-third of that annual reference work. He authored the reference books Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet  (nine editions). He also writes columns for the Naval Institute’s magazines Proceedings and Naval History.

His book DEFCON-2: Standing on the Brink of Nuclear War During the Cuban Missile Crisis (2006) is about the military aspects of the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. It was coauthored with John D. Gresham and they were also associate producers of the film entitled DEFCON-2, based on the book, which was aired on the Discovery Channel. Tom Clancy made the on-camera introduction and closing to the film, and wrote the foreword for the book. (In his first major interview following publication of his book Hunt for Red October--published in Time magazine--Mr. Clancy acknowledged Mr. Polmar's books as a major source for his technical information.)  Mr. Polmar visited Cuba and met with participants in the crisis for the filming of DEFCON-2.

 

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